The information depends on the physical medium (information = physical medium + semantics), non-additive (additive = which is added), ie. the information contained in a message is not an arithmetic sum of the components of that message; these elements cannot be arranged arbitrarily without losing the meaning, the presence of value – manifests itself if the information is needed; public character – is created and used by all; semantic (conceptual) character; linguistic character, but does not depend on the language and the native speaker; discretion (individual, book, article); cumulativeness; independence from the creator; aging (moral and physical); distraction (in time and space); usefulness, objectivity, accuracy, topicality, formatting (book, electronic version), security, reliability, interactivity (possibility to extract gradually).
Information and knowledge are not one and the process of transforming one into the other is by no means an easy, and sometimes a painful, and by no means a mechanical process.
What is knowledge?
Knowledge is a proven result in the practice of the knowledge of reality, its true reflection in the human mind. H. is the opposite of ignorance, ie. the absence of verified information about something. H. They are life, pre-scientific, artistic, and scientific, and the latter – empirical and theoretical. As a rule, they are reduced to a statement of facts and their explanation, while scientific knowledge.
They explain them, make sense of them in the system of concepts of the specific science, include them in the composition of theories. Reference: “Information and knowledge”, https://businessprogrammanagement.wordpress.com/2021/07/20/information-and-knowledge/
The essence of scientific knowledge consists in understanding reality in its past, present, and future, in a reliable summary of the facts, in that behind the accidental it finds the necessary and regular, behind the singular – the general and on this basis makes predictions. Man’s thinking is constantly moving from ignorance to knowledge, from superficial to ever deeper knowledge. (BSE, 3rd ed., 1972, vol. 9, p. 555)
Types of knowledge
Explicit knowledge – fixed on a suitable material medium and accessible to everyone
Tacit knowledge – personal knowledge that becomes available only at the request of its owner
Corporate knowledge – the diverse information that the organization needs to have to maintain a high level of the main business processes of the organization, as well as to quickly and adequately respond to various impacts. The British management certification organization BVOP, for example, recommends that all managers share corporate knowledge among all teams. Reference: “Sharing knowledge, Business Value-Oriented Principles”, https://bvop.org/learn/about-business-value-oriented-principles/
embodied – physical and physiological knowledge, incl. habits, for example, the knowledge of the hairdresser who makes a hairstyle;
embraced – knowledge that is stored in the mind, for example, the knowledge of consultants;
encoded – codified knowledge contained on various media – on paper, in databases;
embedded – materialized knowledge contained in technology, architecture, procedures;
encultured – common intellectual models that we share with colleagues.
know that – зная това; knowledge as truth
know how – knowing how; knowledge as a skill
Know-who – knowing who; there is always a person with appropriate knowledge
Know-what – know what; i.e. I can understand and choose the best
Know-why – I know why I can make forecasts on this basis as well
Know-when – knowing when;